Education

By Mariam Haydeyan and Nishant Shah July 30, 2015 - 6:00am Comments
Editor’s note: This is the second in a series of four blogs on digital technology. Nishant Shah’s Annotation: In the last entry, I had suggested that instead of connectedness, what we really need to think about, in connected and digital learning, is the idea of distributedness. I had argued that the role of technology in MOOC environments is that of consolidation, and it is the act of consolidation that allows for the distributedness of learners, teachers, and resources to be sustained. Building upon this conversation, my colleague Mariam Haydeyan at the Leuphana Digital School, uses the opportunity of the recently completed Online Open Course, “Managing the Arts,” to think about decentralized learning environments and distribution of affect and intentions. What remains powerful in Mariam’s reflection is the implicit idea that technologies of consolidation often reinforce the idea of the user/learner as disconnected and alone, and that it is crucial to pay attention to the learner as an affective learner, and installed in conditions of collectivity rather than connectivity. I remember an exam in an arts class where we were given an A3 print of Albrecht Dürer’s “Rhinoceros” and asked to build a new motif from cuttings of the sophisticated woodcut. The task itself was, of course, not cutting edge. Nevertheless, both the process and product were exhilarating. Our teacher wanted us to do simple, material work. Without employing additional materials, the central idea was to imitate and further develop Dürer’s structures and patterns to make a new picture, our own picture — one that speaks our language through his symbols, bearing the hallmarks of the original creation. The result was that this entity, separated in parts and thoughtfully reassembled, underwent a radical transformation and was enfeebled of being something completed and absolute. Furthermore, intent upon appreciating and preserving the work’s original attributes, we were able to take up Dürer’s hand and to slip in forms and structures of our own. Carefully implemented, it was not outlandish at all. Why did this simple task fascinate me so emphatically and what has it to do with this entry and to tackling the question of what constitutes learning in the digital age? Oftentimes, one reads that we must understand what learning is and how it can be defined. But, let us put it this way: we must understand how learning takes place today and, thus, delve into its practical application. What our task is now is to disengage from preconceived notions of these reactions, stop delivering “predigested knowledge,” and look beyond the traditional notion of learning in which knowledge is a commodity delivered from the transmitter to the recipient. The Rhinoceros-exercise showed the virtuality of a seemingly real and coherent entity. That is exactly what we need in digital higher education. We need to uncouple knowledge transfer and conferencing from the oftentimes still predominant rigid notions of “teaching” and “learning” as predefined educational constructs. This consciousness of an ever changing identity of the learner and the teacher can help to further develop digital and open and connected learning and teaching toward new and multilayered educational role models. How would that be manifested in a MOOC? The emergence and developments of MOOCs are going the right direction approaching a new learning constitution, shifting learning experiences from individual to collective, from consuming to producing, from reactionary to participatory and chiefly founding on conversation and co-creation. But, we need a pedagogy reflecting that. Furthermore, we need to understand that focusing on the learner by targeting a learner-centered approach should not conduct us to the wrong way of averting the focus from the teacher. In the contrary, s/he becomes more important than ever, having to serve the manifold needs and demands of the individual learner. Taking this into account, teaching cannot be embodied in one person or type but in multiple. This is where the unique approach of Leuphana Digital School’s MOOCs — Mentored Open Online Courses — exemplifies how the concept of MOOCs can be further developed on behalf of the idea of concentrating on the individuality of the learner by decentralizing and breaking down the teaching process in multiple components. Leuphana Digital School’s Mentored Open Online Courses facilitate the implementation of a unique didactical concept where, equated to the idea that there is not “the answer” but a multiplicity of approaches, there is not “the teacher” but scholars, mentors, tutors, academic directors, facilitators and administrators in one MOOC. Leuphana Digital School’s Mentored Open Online Courses include teamwork, emphasizing peer-to-peer assessments as well as mentor-assessments, realigning the learning experience through project-based working in the space of a case-scenario based method. The Teacher is Not Alone — Teaching is Granular We exposed that open education was supposed to commit to accessing knowledge to all, thus contributing to social progress and the transformation of the individual.[1] The values emerging from the modern education concept of openness led us to ethics and a philosophy founding on participation, cooperation, and mutual and reciprocal experiences. We cannot forbear to absolutely apply a method to digital education by challenging teaching in online education — a symbiosis of pedagogical implementation and assessment concepts. However, challenging the teaching does not mean that teaching is embodied in one instance, even in one person, but has to be multi-generated to tackle the learner’s experiences on different levels and through different responsibilities. Leuphana Digital School recognizes that teaching an online course consists of different roles and processes one person or type neither would be able nor would want to perform. Starting in 2012 with the pilot course, “ThinkTank – Ideal City of the 21st Century,” they have been giving their Mentored Open Online Course concept a try by gathering the participants in one platform around a strong faculty, a team of experts, undertaking the functions of different teacher types. The concept has proven to be successful, particularly on the example of the latest course, “Managing the Arts,” around marketing of cultural organizations, to as many as 17,000 users. Chris Dercon was the course director and moderator — publicly introducing the course, internally introducing the students to the assignments and the course phases. The academic director and the MOOC facilitator built a strong duo, hosting the community during the course having curated its design and scenarios. The MOOC director, giving input in the forums, defining leading questions and managing the community on an individual and collective level, worked hand-in-glove with the MOOC facilitator, providing organizational information on the platform regarding course structure and processes. Scholars — experts in their specific fields — give input and impulses through short keynote lectures and contribute to discussions in the community during the course. Teams are assigned to mentors and tutors. Mentors accompany the teams throughout their learning experience on a content-related level, provide feedback on drafts and evaluate final submissions after a course phase ends. Tutors provide administrative and technical support. All these activities are bundled by a core project management team at Leuphana Digital School. The Learner is Not Alone – Learning Through Affect Leuphana University gives out ECTS certificates after successfully completing the courses, thus it is useful to gather all user activities, tasks and assignments on one learning platform. In doing so, they are enabled to formalize feedback processes and consolidate peer processes in one virtual environment. In this environment the learning experience extremely differs from the experience in a physical classroom. The learner finds himself in a space, where time and place collapse and collaboration and cooperation stand in the absolute foreground. I keep Jonathan Worth in mind. The professional photographer and instructor of #phonar (photography and narrative), an open course on photography and storytelling to as many as 35,000, raising one important question during Leuphana Digital School’s #FutureU workshop, that stands above everything else when creating an online course: “How do we create an experience in which we add value for the learner when learning with the digital?” [2] My answer is affect. What Leuphana Digital School does is to organize the participants in working groups — during the course of the MOOC, they work collaboratively on a submission, based on assignments that are complexity deepening with every phase of the course. Every member of a course’s community, be it the teacher or learner, is driven by the atmosphere and dynamics predominating the course. Acting in a team or group does not mean that the sensibility of the individual does not stand in the foreground. The development of a MOOC very much depends on every singe, silent or loud mind, contributing to its success. So, what we have to do is to build a learning instance where we create emotion. Teachers as well as learners, in their particular roles, have to ask themselves certain questions, whose answers are determining the learning experience: Why are you part of this event? What is your intrinsic motivation? What do you love and where do you want to go? How do you define your goals and how can you turn the learning of a MOOC into strategies that help you to achieve them?[3] What learners and teachers can do to affect each other is to foster provocation, encouragement, enthusiasm, success and failure. Marginal experiences, the belongingness to a group or community, the responsibility to contribute and the identification with the task or the goal create a strong commitment to the learning experience and enable an enduring learning outcome. Through sharing of information, resources and knowledge and synergy, conversation and discourse, common value is created, ideas generated and an intellectual home can be established. Going back to the rhinoceros, it becomes obvious, why this task is still in my mind as an impressive learning experience. The teacher could have asked me about Dürer’s life, his oeuvre, about humanism and reformation, about the particular artworks’ history and background — dry reproduction of the information. But, what she actually did was to create emotion — she allowed me to converse with this piece of art and contribute to it, whereby, I took all the information she could have asked automatically into account, describing my derivative of this masterpiece. If I would teach a class and give this rhinoceros or maybe a typewriter to a team in a MOOC or a whole community and then ask them to create something new of its components, they would start to learn facts about the products’ origin, history, attributes and identify, its composition and mechanics before starting to work on the task. Not only would they learn more about its “theory” if the only task would have been to learn all key data, but because they would decide to do so on their own, seeing the necessity of knowing the product before “destroying” it. Above everything, that’s how I imagine it to be. They would start to discuss, go toe-to-toe with each other, start to find strategies for agreement and find themselves in a complex circle of design thinking and creative problem solving. What would the outcome be? What about a robot…? Image credits: Banner image, Albrecht Dürer's "Rhionceros"; Image 2, Old Typewriter (Things Come Apart) by Todd McLellan; Image 3, Typewriter Assemblage Sculpture by Jeremy Mayer 
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By Nishant Shah July 23, 2015 - 6:00am Comments
Editor’s note: This is the first in a series of four blogs on digital learning. In their accidental and ironic hit Youtube song, “What does the Fox say?”, the Norwegian band Ylvis, who first produced it as an “anti-hit” production, takes up a school-book primer describing all the different noises that animals make, and make a critical intervention in this taxonomy of school-room sounds: But, there’s one sound that no one knows, what does the fox say?
By Matt Rafalow July 16, 2015 - 12:00am Comments
Most practitioners and education researchers argue that digital divides are still the biggest obstacle to ensuring that diverse populations of youth have a shot at becoming the next Steve Jobs. Among these divides are gaps in students’ digital skills. For example, studies find that teachers do not equally teach the same digital skills in Internet use, online collaboration, and digital production.
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By Nicole Mirra June 22, 2015 - 12:00am Comments
I always cringe when educational pundits talk about evaluating teachers according to “value-added” assessment models, as if the value that teachers offer their students could be easily quantified or evaluated according to any standardized metric.
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By Antero Garcia June 18, 2015 - 12:00am Comments
In his concluding remarks during his DML 2015 session, “Designing Classroom Equity: Connected Learning and Co-Designed Research from Across the National Writing Project,” DML Conference Committee member and Columbia University Professor Ernest Morrell noted: “Technologies are tools; love is a foundation; humanity is the end.” 
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By Ben Williamson June 4, 2015 - 7:00am Comments
Data have long been used to manage education. Data appear to make the messy complexity of schools and schooling more easy to understand, and help policymakers in their decision making. Now, with the rise of "big data" and associated data processing, mining and analytics software, a new style of digital education policymaking is making education increasingly machine-readable.
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By Liz Losh May 4, 2015 - 5:22am Comments
World making or world building as a pedagogical activity emphasizes authoring entire environments and systems collaboratively rather than merely having students compose one discrete text at a time in isolation.
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By Ben Williamson April 30, 2015 - 8:47am Comments
In the UK, the last year or so has seen a massive proliferation of interest in digital education right across the spectrum of the public, private and civil society sectors. Digital education has now become the focus for a cross-sector “network” of interests and concerns, and, as a result, is now becoming “governmentalized” as a seriously political business.
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By Howard Rheingold April 13, 2015 - 8:00am Comments
“I learned more on Twitter in six months than in two years of graduate school” is the epigraph of the first chapter of Tom Whitby’s book (co-authored with Steven W.
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By Nicole Mirra April 9, 2015 - 9:59am Comments
As part of the national celebration of Digital Learning Day last month, I had the opportunity to moderate an online debate between two teams of high school students from opposite ends of California about the merits and risks of social media as a communication tool. Considering that I helped coach a high school policy debate team in my former life, I was thrilled to participate in this lively dialogue.
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By Buffy J. Hamilton March 23, 2015 - 10:44am Comments
As we continue our efforts to think about writing literacies as a focal point of our inquiry work in a high school library, my colleague Jennifer Lund and I continue to see the power of an old school technology: pen and paper.
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By Antero Garcia March 19, 2015 - 9:48am Comments
Growing to the thousands of attendees and general public that will encounter the games, ideas, and fun that are a part of this year’s Games for Change Festival hasn’t been easy. Asi Burak, president of Games for Change reflected on the growth that the organization and the movementhas experienced over the past decade.
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By Barry Joseph March 5, 2015 - 3:48pm Comments
Wired’s recent cover article, “Microsoft in the Age of Satya Nadella,” is a fascinating piece about how the software giant is aiming to reposition itself to remain dominant in the next operating system revolution.
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By Howard Rheingold March 2, 2015 - 8:00am Comments
KitHub, “creative electronics for young innovators,” is a kit-of-the-month club for young makers, their parents, and their families. It was designed to empower kids and parents who weren’t necessarily close to a physical makerspace, by two women — Tara Tiger Brown and Luz Rivas — who are passionately devoted to maker education, not by an edu-biz conglomerate or VC-founded startup.
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By Ben Williamson February 23, 2015 - 8:00am Comments
The rapid growth of learning to code clubs, makerspaces, hackerspaces and even makercities has been remarkable. It’s fairly logical, then, that the focus for various coders, makers and hackers has switched back around to focus on education and learning itself. We’ve learned to code, hack and make new stuff, why not code, hack and make a new kind of education? Neo-unschooling
Hackerspaces and Homeschooling: Making ‘Startup Schools’ Blog Image
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By Jade E. Davis February 19, 2015 - 8:00am Comments
The family computer recently stopped working. This wouldn’t be the end of the world normally, however, my oldest son’s second-grade classroom implemented a new homework policy. Instead of having homework on paper, all homework is done on the computer across three sites.
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By Howard Rheingold February 16, 2015 - 8:00am Comments
What if we trusted students as a default and dealt with transgressions when and if they come up? What if we gave them web-accessible devices without filters but taught them common sense and used transgressions as teachable moments? What if we even gave learners of every age a bit of agency in the shaping of their own curriculum — above and beyond recess and show-and-tell?
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By John Jones January 26, 2015 - 8:00am Comments
It’s starting to seem like there is a new ritual being performed at the beginning of each new semester: debating the use of technology in the classroom. In these debates, “technology” almost never means all human-made tools — I’ve yet to read an earnest blog post calling for a ban on pencils in the classroom — but rather portable electronics, most notably the laptop.
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By S. Craig Watkins January 1, 2015 - 8:00am Comments
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By Barry Joseph December 29, 2014 - 8:00am Comments
For my final post of the year, I thought I would turn the mic around and ask YOU, the ever faithful DML Central reader, what you think about the year in digital media and learning. To get your thoughts flowing, I asked my fellow DML Central columnists to weigh in with their own year-end observations. Please take a moment to review their reflections, then add your own.
2014: A Digital Media and Learning Look Back, Forward Blog Image

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